A sprinkler system consists of water supply and one or more sprinkler installation; each installation consists of a set of installation control valves and a pipe array fitted with sprinkler heads. The sprinkler heads are fitted at specified locations at the roof or ceiling, and where necessary between racks, below shelves, inside ovens or stoves or below obstructions. The main element of a typical installation is shown in the figure-Fire Sprinkler System And Use of Sprinkler System
- A sprinkler has two functions to perform. it must first detect a fire, and must then provide an adequate distribution of water to control or extinguish it. Each function is performed separately and one is independent of the other except insofar as early detection makes extinction easier because the fire has not grown large. The classic use of the sprinkler is in the hot gas layer which forms beneath the ceiling of an enclosure in which a fire is developing.
- The sprinklers operate at pre-determined temperatures to discharge water over the affected part of the area below, the flow of water through the alarm valve initiating a fire alarm. The operating temperature is generally selected to suit ambient temperature conditions. only sprinklers in the vicinity of the fire, i.e. those which become sufficiently heated, operate. it should not be assumed that the provision of the sprinkler system entirely obviates the need for other means of fighting fires and it is important to consider the fire precautions in the premises as a whole.
- Structural fire resistance, escape routes, fire alarm systems, particular hazards needing other fire protection methods, provision of hose reels and fire hydrants and portable fire extinguishers, etc., safe working and good handling methods, management supervision and good housekeeping all need consideration. it is essential that the sprinkler system should be properly maintained to ensure operation when required. This routine is reliable to be overlooked or given insufficient attention by supervisors. it is, however, neglected at peril to the lives of the occupants of the premises at the risk of cripple financial loss. the importance of proper maintenance cannot be too highly emphasized. when the sprinkler system is disabled, extra attention should be paid to fire precautions and the appropriate authorities informed. This has been discussed in detail in sections 18 and 19 of the regulations.
- The regulations have been divided into 20 sections and each section deals elaborately with various aspects of the sprinkler protection system. The pipe sizing and hydraulic calculations for various hazards are discussed in detail. figures have been shown for several rules where more clarity is required. The rules are clearer about where the system is not required and where the systems can be excluded. The grading of the sprinkler system has been revised more realistically. The pumping capacity and the water requirements for the sprinkler system have been clearly defined. The changes made from the 30th edition of the sprinkler rules have not in any way diluted the protection requirements. The changes have been made to suit the Indian conditions.
Use of Fire Sprinkler Systems ;
- A fire sprinkler system works better than any other fire prevention system on the market today. The reason is simple: it stops fires before they get too big. A fire can rage out of control in the time it takes you to read this paragraph. but a fire sprinkler system is activated the moment the heat in the room rises to a threshold level-which could be within seconds. A fire sprinkler system douses the fire in water, effectively smothering it before it has a chance to spread. Fire sprinkler systems protect your home in other ways, as well. most people who die as a result of fire die of suffocation from smoke inhalation. fire sprinkler systems are the only fire protection device that cuts through the smoke, weighing down larger smoke particles before they have a chance to rise. this lessens smoke thickness, making it easier to breathe.that’s why nobody has yet died as a result of the fire in a u.k home with a fire sprinkler systems installed.
How A Fire Sprinkle System works ;
- Fire sprinkler systems are hooked up to water pipes in your ceiling and walls. The network of water pipes is either filled with water at all times or hooked up to your water main or a storage tank via a water pump or valve. The sprinklers themselves are installed on your ceiling or sometimes high on the wall. Each sprinkler in the fire sprinkler system is fitted with a glass bulb containing gases and liquids that expand under heat, or with a fusible link with seals that melt upon contact with high heat.
- When a fire starts it sends a plume of hot air toward the ceiling. This expands the contents of the glass bulb. when the gases get hot enough the glass bulb breaks. in the case of the fusible link, the heat melts the seals on the links. This releases a valve connected to the water pipes the ceiling, dousing the fire with water. The glass bulbs and link seals are often designed to break at a specific temperature- usually around 68c
- The droplets released by the fire sprinkler system are strictly controlled to be large enough to penetrate the core of the fire without evaporating. They bring the temperature inside the fire down below sustainable levels. As a result, the fire goes out quickly before it has a chance to spread to different areas of the house.
Types of Fire Sprinkler System ;
- There are several different types of systems on the market, and each is designed for a different situation. These three types are the most common fire sprinkler system types found in homes:
- A fire sprinkler is most commonly recommended for residential buildings. with a wet-pipe fire sprinkler system, water is constantly flowing through the pipes that connect to the sprinkler heads. This allows for the most efficient access to water in case of a fire. However, wet-pipe fire sprinkler systems are not practical in areas of the world where the temperature drops below freezing, especially in buildings that go without heat for any period of time, because the pipes can freeze and burst.
- Fire sprinkler systems have pipes filled with compressed air, connected to a water main or storage tank with a valve that keeps the water out of the pipes. when a fire activates the sprinkler heads, there is a drop in pressure that causes the water to flow into the pipes and out through the sprinkler heads. Dry-pipe systems tend to be higher-maintenance than a wet-pipe system, but they are recommended in cases where water shouldn’t be in the pipes unless there is a fire.
- A fire sprinkler system can be filled with water during warm weather, and drained and filled with compressed air for the winter. These systems are useful in climates where there are harsh winters and the building is not constantly heated. read more…