Let’s start new topics SAFETY MANAGEMENT


  • In any economy, human resources is a very important component along with natural resources. During and after the industrial revolution human being designed and manufactured machines to increase production. Human and natural resources were exploited to generate enormous wealth in the economy- SAFETY MANAGEMENT
  • Growing industrialization brought hazards and dangers to its creators. The health of the worker was deteriorating while generating wealth. This system overexploited the human and natural resources workers were dying in the race to create wealth. The increasing accidents, disasters, and human injuries required urgent alteration.
  • At this stage, it was realized that ever-increasing hazards and dangers in the industry should be addressed. To ensure the health and safety of the worker, safe work practices in a safe environment where necessary. This is known as the concept of safety.
  • The main aim of the concept of safety is to protect human beings and all living creatures from natural and man-made disasters and prevent economic losses. To achieve this, various methods of hazard detection, inspection analyses, measurement, and assessment have been developed. The concept included all aspects of accident prevention and control, occupational health and hygiene, and environment protection. Also measures in the event of accidents to mitigate the after-effects. In the short concept of safety can be described as:
  • (a)Basic, fundamental, and primary safety rule.
    (b) Knowledge to solve safety problems.
    (C) Technical, engineering scientific, physiological, psychological, management, and ergonomic subject.
    (d) Statutory and nonstatutory measures.

Need for safety: Reasons for the need for safety is given below:

  • (a) Industries producing basic human needs to operate machines. These generate various types of hazards such as mechanical electrical, noise, vibration, and chemical. Their hazards affect human life and environment- SAFETY MANAGEMENT
  • (b) Direct and indirect costs of accidents are ever-increasing causing a great loss to the nation.
    (c) Human resources are national wealth. Fatal accidents must be minimized to prevent loss.
    (d) Death and injuries cause suffering to families and society.
    (e) Productivity is directly proportional to safety.

Nature of Safety: The nature of safety depends on situations that change with the environment. It is circumstantial. Its nature is such that it is universally accepted for a large mass of people. Nature safety is such that it brings down danger and risk to acceptable levels by various personal protection- SAFETY MANAGEMENT

Importance of Safety: The concept of safety is important because it prevents a worker as well as others around him from harm and damage to property. It takes care of problems arising from the process at the workplace and its effect on the health of the worker and environment.

Factors impeding safety.

Following factors affect safety (at management level)
(a) Lack of interest by the management
(b) Compromising safety to enhance production
(c) Poor maintenance of machines and equipment
(d) Poor working environment, with improper lighting, ventilation, safety guards on machines
(e) Improper location and layout of the plant. (1) Lack of inspection, supervision, and training.
(g) Absence of safety organization.
(h) Lack of motivation and participation for safety.

Factors impeding safety due to workers

(a) Lack of interest in safety by workers.
(b) Insufficient knowledge, qualification, and training for the job.
(c) Reluctance to use PPE
(d) Indiscipline lethargy and disobedience for safety regulation
(e) Noncooperation with management’s safety policy (f) Guided by personal factors causing an unsafe condition-SAFETY MANAGEMENT

Factors impeding safety at government level.

  • Not enacting or amending safety laws and their poor enforcement
  • Poor incentives and encouragement to employee and employers for safety efforts

Plant Safety Inspection

This may be achieved by developing a checklist or inspection form that covers the key issues to be monitored in a particular department or area of the organization within a particular period. It might be useful
to structure this checklist using the ‘four PSSAFETY MANAGEMENT

Premises, including:
Work at height
Working environment
Fire precautions
Plant and substance, including:
Work equipment
Manual and mechanical handling
Dangerous/flammable substance
Hazardous substance
Procedures, including:
Risk assessment
A safe system of work
Permit to work
Personal protective equipment •
Notice, signs, and posters
People, including
Health surveillance
People’s behavior
Training and supervision
Appropriate authorized persons
Those especially at risk
It is essential that people carrying out an inspection do not in any way put themselves or anyone else at risk. Particular care must be taken with regard to safe access. In carrying out these safety inspections, the safety of people’s actions should be considered, in addition to the safety of the condition they are working in eg. A ladder might be in perfect condition but it has to be used properly too-SAFETY MANAGEMENT

Safety sampling :

Safety sampling is a useful technique that helps organizations to concentrate on one particular area or subject at a time. A specific area is chosen which can be inspected in about 30 minutes. A checklist is drawn up to facilitate the inspection looking at specific issues. These may be different types of hazard: they may be unsafe acts or conditions noted; they may be proactive, good behavior, or practices noted. The inspection team or person then carries out the sampling at the same time each day or week in the specified period. The results are recorded and analyzed to see if the changes are good or bad over time. Of course, defects noted must be brought to the notice of the appropriate person for action on each occasion.

Safety Surveys:

A safety survey can take the form of an examination of a number of critical areas of operation, such as materials handling operations, or an in-depth study of all health and safety-related activities in a workplace or an organization. Safety surveys examine a range of issues, such as the effectiveness of the management of health and safety, environmental working conditions, health hazards, the very broad field of accident prevention, and the current system for health and safety training. Evidence of observance or otherwise with current health and safety legislation features strongly in a safety survey. At the completion of the survey, management is presented with a safety survey report incorporating immediate, short-term, and long-term recommendations. Implementation of the recommendations is monitored on a regular basis by the safety surveyor and progress reports prepared and issued to management.

Incident Recall Technique (IRT)

This method is based on collecting information on hazards, near miss, unsafe conditions, and unsafe actions from working people. It can be used to investigate the man-machine relationships and to improve operations. The technique consists of- SAFETY MANAGEMENT
a) Interviewing personnel involved in accidents or near miss
b) Finding out errors, mistakes, difficulties
c) Find out conditions which lead to an accident
d) To investigate even isolated accidents

Job Safety Analysis (JSA):

The identification of all the accident prevention measures appropriate to a particular job or area of work activity and the behavior factors which most significantly influence whether or not these measures are taken’ The approach is both diagnostic and descriptive. It may be job-based or activities-SAFETY MANAGEMENT

Job-based: Machinery operators; forklift truck drivers
Activity-based: Manual handling operations; roof work; cleaning activities.

Job safety analysis evolved from:
a) task analysis; and
b) method study and work measurement (SREDIM).
The latter incorporates the SREDIM principle, namely:
SELECT – the work to be studied
RECORD – the method of doing the work EXAMINE – the total operating system DEVELOP – the optimum methods for doing the work
INSTALL – the method into the company’s operations
MAINTAIN – the defined and measured method
Applying the SREDIM principle to job safety analysis, the procedure is as follows-SAFETY MANAGEMENT
Select the job to be analyzed.
Break the job down into component parts in an orderly and chronological sequence job. Critically observe and examine each component part of the job to determine the
risk of accidents.
Develop control measures to eliminate or reduce the risk of an accident.
Formulate written safe systems of work and job safety instructions,
Review safe systems of work and job safe practices at regular intervals to ensure utilization. 

The Concept of Fire Safety Inspection, Audit and Checklist

Safety Inspection:

This is generally taken to mean a scheduled inspection of a workplace or part of a workplace, such as a factory, office, workshop, construction site, or a public building. It can be undertaken by a manager, safety adviser, or representative of employee safety. Whilst the principal objective of a safety inspection is to identify hazards and assess the remedial action necessary, this form of monitoring may also examine maintenance standards, working practices, environmental conditions, and compliance with legal requirements and written safety procedures. A safety inspection is, in effect, a general examination of a workplace at a specific point in time rather than the in-depth approach taken by a safety survey. As with any form of safety monitoring, it is vital that the objectives are clearly defined and the outcome of the inspection in terms of recommendations for action is acted upon promptly by management.

Safety Audit:

‘It is a critical examination of all or part of a total operating system with relevance to safety and to suggest improvements and up-gradation. A safety audit is intended to measure the effectiveness of a company’s safety programs in every respect.’ The objectives should be clearly defined such as:

1) To carry out a systematic and critical appraisal of all potential hazards involving
personnel, plant, services, and methods of operation.
2) To ensure that the occupational health and safety standards fully satisfy the legal
requirements and those of the company’s written policies, objectives, and programs. The word “safety audit’ is also used for ‘safety inspection’ intended for:
a) Identification of possible loss situations. b) Measurement of the potential losses associated with these risks.
c) Selection of methods to minimize the losses.  
d) Implementation of the selected methods within the company and e) Monitoring of the result and suggesting further improvement based review.
A safety audit can examine, for instance, the quality of health and safety documentation from the Statement of Health and Safety Policy to other documents, such as risk assessments, Permits to Work, contractors’ regulations, and employee health and safety information. It will also examine health and safety management systems, management and employee attitudes to health and safety, prevention and control procedures, and training arrangements. Safety audits can be designed to cover areas of particular significance to an organization, e.g. management of hazardous substances, safety procedures for employees working away from base and specific health protection arrangements, in addition to those more general issues which apply to all workplaces.

Safety Checklist:
Where there is a need to monitor safety standards on a regular basis, many organizations operate a simple checklist system. In this case, a trained person, such as a supervisor, goes through the workplace or his department on a weekly basis using the checklist. Such a system relies heavily on the conscientious use of the checklist, regular revision of the same, and on the effectiveness of action taken where there is a deviation from the requirements shown in the checklist.

Total Loss Control & Damage Control System

Total Loss Control is a management system developed in the 1960s by Frank Bird. It is defined as a program designed to reduce or eliminate all accidents which downgrade the system and which results in wastage of an organization’s assets. An organization’s assets are:

1. Manpower
2. Materials
3. Machinery
4. Manufactured goods
5. Money

The five ‘Ms
Within the Total Loss Control concept, a number of definitions are important. 

Incident: An undesired event that could, or does, result in loss
An undesired event that could, or does, downgrade the efficiency of the business operation.’
Accident: An undesired event that results in physical harm or damage to property. It is usually the result of contact with a source of energy (i.e. kinetic, electrical, thermal, ionizing, non-ionizing radiation, etc) above the threshold limit of the body or structure.’

Loss control: An intentional management action directed at the prevention, reduction, or elimination of the pure (non-speculative) risks of the business.’
Total loss control: The application of professional management techniques and skills through those program activities (directed at risk avoidance, loss prevention, and loss reduction) specifically intended to minimize loss resulting from the pure (non-speculative) risks of a business.’
Total loss control programs: Total Loss Control is commonly run as a program over a period of, for example, five years. The various stages are outlined below:’
Injury prevention: This stage is concerned with the humanitarian and, to some extent, legal aspects of employee safety and employees’ compensation costs. It normally incorporates a range of features, such as machinery safety, joint consultation, safety training, cleaning and housekeeping, safety rules, etc.’
Damage control: ‘This part of the program covers the control of accidents which cause damage to property and plant and which might, conceivably, cause injury. Essential elements of this stage are damage reporting, recording, and costing.’
Total accident control: This stage of the program is directed at the prevention of all accidents resulting in personal injury and/or property damage. Three important aspects of this stage are spot-checking systems, reporting by control centers, and health and safety audits.?
Business interruption: This entails the incorporation in the program of controls overall situations and influences which downgrade the system and result in interruption of the business activities, e.g. fire prevention, security procedures, product liability, and pollution prevention. Business interruption results in lost money, e.g. operating expenses, lost time, reduced production, and lost sales.’
Total loss control: This is the control of all insured and uninsured costs arising from any incidents which downgrade the system.

Damage Control System: 

Asset protection is an important requirement for organizations. Assets include money, materials, manufactured goods, manpower, and machinery (the 5 ‘M’s). Damage control, as a management technique, is directly concerned with the protection of an organization’s assets from accidental loss. This applies, in particular, to machinery, in order to maintain production, and materials manufactured goods, and other finished products before they reach the consumer. Within a total loss control framework, effective damage control indirectly protects assets through the elimination of damage to, for example, structural items, such as floors and walls, machinery, and other items of work equipment, such as lift trucks, and finished products arising from poor storage arrangements. Planned preventive maintenance systems, therefore, form part of an effective damage control strategy. The reporting, recording, investigation, and costing of damage is an essential feature of a damage control program. Moreover, evidence of damage to structures, work equipment, vehicles, and final products is, in many cases, a clear indicator of poor standards of health and safety performance. The factors contributing to damage are similar in many respects to those leading to personal injury.

Benefits of Damage Control
1) Reduction in potential accidents
2) Reduction in injury accidents
3) Reduction in severe injuries
4) Detection of unsafe conditions
5) Detection of unsafe actions
6) Improvements in production, cost of maintenance, replacement
7) Increase in profit
This gave birth to a concept known as ‘Total Loss Control. It is a concept from injury prevention to control of all business losses by applying sound management principles
Fire Loss Control: “Prevention is better than cure” so goes the old saying which applies to fire also. It fire takes place protection becomes most important. The damage caused by fire depends on the
1) Quantity of heat liberated during combustion
2) Heat dissipated in the surroundings
3) Accumulation of heat in a non-combustible and combustible material in the building and structure
4) Combustible parts heated up to their burning point
5) Non-combustible material and structure change their properties due to heat
Methods to minimize Fire Loss Control
i) Fire prevention
ii) Active fire prevention
iii) Passive fire protection
iv) Fire growth control
v) Structural stability
vi) Fire containment
vii) Segregation
viii) Compartmentation

Hazard Analysis

In simple terms, hazard analysis means a classification of hazards, e.g. chemical hazards, mechanical hazards, electrical hazards, fall hazards, day and night wise hazards, etc. In this way, it is a qualitative analysisSAFETY MANAGEMENT Hazard analysis is a) analysis of the mechanism of hazard occurrence and b) analysis of terminal consequences of hazards which may include a number of injuries, fatality, property damage, and other losses. In this way, it is a quantitative analysis. Its study is known as HAZAN (Hazard Analysis). It means identification of undesired events, which lead to the materialization of a hazard, analysis of the mechanism by which such undesired events could occur, and estimation of the extent, magnitude, and likelihood of any harmful effects or consequences. Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) is a procedure for identifying hazards early in the design phase of the project before the final design has been established. Its purpose is to identify opportunities for design modifications, which would reduce or eliminate hazards, mitigate the consequences of accidents or both.

System Safety Analysis:
The system safety analysis concept calls for a risk management strategy based on identification, analysis of hazards, and application of remedial controls using a system-based approach. The concept of system safety is useful in demonstrating the adequacy of technologies when difficulties are faced with probabilistic risk. System-based approach to safety requires the application of scientific, technical and managerial skills to hazard identification, hazard analysis and elimination, control, or management of hazards READ MORE

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